Communications in the millimeter-wave region gets more and more attractive due to the availability of higher bandwidths. 3GPP 5G New Radio (NR) allocates channels in the frequency range from 23 to 53 GHz and IEEE 802.11ay between 56 and 75 GHz. Friis’ transmission equation relates the received (Rx) to the transmitted (Tx) power and depends on the Tx and Rx antenna gains and the path loss. The path loss scales as the square of the wavelength, which needs to be compensated at higher frequencies by applying high gain antennas. A common method to increase the antenna gain is to apply antenna arrays consisting of individually controllable radiators. The calibration and defect detection of antenna arrays is an important topic during their fabrication (e.g. mobile backhaul antennas), or conformance testing of user equipment containing millimeter-wave antenna arrays.
This session will introduce a test setup that allows calculating equivalent electric or magnetic currents on an arbitrary Huygens surface. These currents are obtained by applying the fast irregular antenna field transformation algorithm (FIAFTA), which was developed by the Chair of High-Frequency Engineering of the Technical University of Munich, to sets of near-field (NF) data, which were gathered with an
This session will address the challenges of designing wireless devices using embedded antennas on very small PCBs for mobile handheld and wearable devices and the implications of 5G for such designs. These small devices are typically used in tracking and wearable electronics, where the market is asking for ever smaller devices.
Devices can be miniaturized to a certain extent, but then the laws of physics begin to constrain further reduction in size because antenna performance relies upon a ground plane of a certain size.
In small devices, the antenna must operate with a small ground plane and cannot use too much power. This already presents a challenge for the product designers, and it will become more challenging as networks evolve to 5G which uses lower frequencies (especially in the US). However it is critical for an antenna to perform correctly or the authorities may not grant network approval and the design will never reach the market.
This presentation will discuss how the design of embedded antennas is evolving to support 5G and how the antenna should be integrated into an end product design to achieve the necessary performance on 5G networks.
A foldable/deployable 5G switched-beam smart base station antenna has been developed for sub-6GHz (3.3-7.0 GHz) or mm-wave band (24-34GHz). It consists of dual parabolic cylindrical reflectors with multiple resonant feeds. It can cover the whole azimuth plane (360°) with an arbitrary number of beams ranging from 9 to 60 beams and 18 to 120 ports (±45° polarizations). It can have horizontal and vertical sectorization at the same time. The peaks of the upper beams can be adjusted to be above the nulls of the lower beams and vice versa. Hence, every user will always be close to the peak of one of these beams. Furthermore, each beam can be remotely tilted with an arbitrary vertical and horizontal tilt angles. The antenna is gridded (punched), which significantly reduces the wind-load and the weight. The overall weight of each multi-beam unit with the radome is around 2 kg. Thus, the overall weight of the switched-beam smart base station antenna that consists of three/four of these units to cover the whole azimuth (360°) is about 6/8 kg. All that makes this multi-beam antenna advantageous in several applications such as satellites, earth stations and space shuttles.
The developed switched-beam smart base station antenna has a high capacity because of its large number
- Software: dynamic and flexible slot/symbol based scheduling, beamforming and beam management, number of spatial streams
- Hardware: No. of physical cores, hardware threads, vCPUs, size of RAM / VRAM;
- Deployment: MACRO <->Pico<-> small cell, disaggregated/Collapsible architecture;
- Services: URLLC, mMTC and EMBB;
- Portability: Multiple HW/SW platforms;
- Manageability- Orchestration and Automation, service acceleration;
- Cloudification – cloud native, containerized, microservices.
- Features such as Massive/MU-MIMO, CoMP, RIC, NW Slicing, etc., should be
Communication at mmWave frequencies is undergoing a kind of renaissance as commercial (e.g. 5G) and military communication systems make use of the combined advantages of operating above 20GHz with small form factor beamforming arrays. One of the main questions left to resolve is around practical ways to implement RF filters that are compact enough to fit inside these systems (components should ideally less than λ/2) while still offering the necessary performance.
Below 6GHz, developers are very familiar with the available filtering technologies that work, such as surface acoustic wave (SAW) and bulk acoustic wave (BAW) filters. These acoustic filters come in small sizes and high volume, and offer a good performance-to-cost tradeoff that makes them a dominant off-chip approach to filtering.
Options for small form factor high performance filters at mmWave are less well known, and the market is still undecided on what filters will be required, where they need to located in the base station, and what performance metrics they need to meet.
In this session, we will provide insights into the key specifications for mmWave filtering and practical options available for teams working on modern mmWave systems. As an illustrative example of